The figure below illustrates the timeseries of W-band radar reflectivity during the timeframe of the campaign when the flights of the ATR-42 took place. Below is the timeseries of temperature at the ground level, and the bottom panel shows the types of hydrometeors captured by the MASC also near the ground level (time steps where temperature exceeds +2°C are discarded). The apparent melting proportion estimated from MASC images fluctuates rather well with the measured ground temperatures.
The figure reflects the variability of the precipitation events recorded during the flights: with both cold and warmer temperatures, deep and shallow clouds and so on.
Airborne in-situ measurements
The atmospheric conditions sampled during each flight are summarized in the table below:
|Flight reference, date and time (UTC)||Number of legs||Altitude of legs (min / max, masl)||Temperature range (min / max, °C)|
|F04 – 22/01 13:40 – 17:20||18||1310 / 3214||-8.1 / +2.8|
|F05 – 23/01 12:30 – 16:30||22||1238 / 2706||-12.5 / +1.7|
|F06 – 27/01 13:30 – 17:00||18||1244 / 3329||-9.1 / +0.47|
|F07 – 28/01 08:50 – 12:05||14||1811 / 3300||-9.0 / +2.3|
|F08 – 30/01 10:30 – 15:30||28||1511 / 3660||-9.3 / +1.6|
In the figure below are shown some summary statistics for each flight, with the violin plots of total water content (from the CVI) and median mass diameter (MMD) derived from 2D-S and PIP measurements. The hydrometeor classification from the PIP imager was run on all flights: the dominant hydrometeor types in the size range (2 mm to 6.4 mm)are aggregates (fragile: 33%, then rimed: 28%), followed by columnar crystals and graupel.